### Keynote 1

Title: **Password Generation, an Example of Human Computation**

Abstract:

A password schema is an algorithm for humans - working in their heads - without paper and pencil - to transform challenges (typically website names) into responses (passwords).

To start this talk, the speaker will ask for 2 or 3 volunteers, whisper instructions in their ears, then have them transform audience-proposed challenges (like AMAZON and FACEBOOK) into passwords.

The passwords will look random. The audience will be challenged to guess properties of the passwords but even the simple schema the speaker whispered to the volunteers will produce passwords that look random. These passwords can be easily made so strong that they pass virtually all password tests, like passwordmeter.com, with 100% strength.

Finally, the speaker will discuss human computation in general and the theory behind it.

This is joint work with Santosh Vempala and Jeremiah Blocki.

### Speaker: Professor Manuel Blum

1995 ACM Turing Award

Member, National Academy of Sciences (NAS), USA

Member, National Academy of Engineering (NAE), USA

Fellow, American Academy of Arts & Sciences

Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

Fellow, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Bruce Nelson University Professor of Computer Science

Carnegie Mellon University, USA

Manuel Blum is a pioneer in the field of theoretical computer science and the winner of the 1995 Turing Award in recognition of his contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its applications to cryptography and program checking, a mathematical approach to writing programs that check their work.

He was born in Caracas, Venezuela, where his parents settled after fleeing Europe in the 1930s, and came to the United States in the mid-1950s to study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. While studying electrical engineering, he pursued his desire to understand thinking and brains by working in the neurophysiology laboratory of Dr. Warren S. McCulloch and Walter Pitts, then concentrated on mathematical logic and recursion theory for the insight it gave him on brains and thinking. He did his doctoral work under the supervision of Artificial Intelligence pioneer Marvin Minsky, and earned a Ph.D. from MIT in mathematics in 1964.

Blum began his teaching career at MIT as an assistant professor of mathematics and, in 1968, joined the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley. He accepted his present position at Carnegie Mellon in 2001. Blum has supervised the theses of 35 doctoral students who now pepper almost every major computer science department in the country. The many ground-breaking areas of theoretical computer science chartered by his academic descendants are legend.

The problems he has tackled in his long career include, among others, methods for measuring the intrinsic complexity of problems. Among many of his key contributions to the Computer Science research community, Blum is also well known as one of the poineers studying CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) and as the co-inventor of the term CAPTCHA itself in the early 2000s. Blum has proposed a broader term Human Interactive Proofs (HIPs) to cover CAPTCHA and many other systems where humans are in the loop of some computational tasks to be done properly, which later inspired other researchers in different disciplines to propose the concept of human computation.

### Keynote 2

Title: **Simulating Societies – The Challenges and Benefits of Modelling Social Processes**

Abstract:

While the idea of computer simulation has had enormous influence on most areas of science, and even on the public imagination through its use in computer games, it has only recently had a significant impact in the social sciences. The breakthrough came when it was realised that computer programs offer the possibility of creating 'artificial' societies in which individuals and collective actors such as organisations could be directly represented and the effect of their interactions observed. This provided for the first time the possibility of using experimental methods with social phenomena, or at least with their computer representations; of directly studying the emergence of social institutions from individual interaction; and of using computer code as a way of formalising dynamic social theories. In this talk, these advances in the application of computer simulation to the social sciences will be illustrated with a number of examples of recent work, showing how this methodology is appropriate for analysing social phenomena that are inherently complex.

### Speaker: Professor Nigel Gilbert

CBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire), 2016

Fellow, Royal Academy of Engineering, UK

Fellow, Academy of Social Sciences, UK

Fellow, Royal Society of Arts, UK

Fellow, BCS - The Chartered Institute for IT, UK

Chartered Engineer

Director, Institute of Advanced Studies (IAS) and Centre for Research in Social Simulation (CRESS), University of Surrey, UK

Nigel Gilbert read for a first degree in Engineering, initially intending to go into the computer industry. However, he was attracted into sociology and obtained his doctorate on the sociology of scientific knowledge from the University of Cambridge, under the supervision of Michael Mulkay. His research and teaching interests have reflected his continuing interest in both sociology and computer science (and engineering more widely).

His main research interests are processual theories of social phenomena, the development of computational sociology and the methodology of computer simulation, especially agent-based modelling. He is Director of the Centre for Research in Social Simulation (CRESS).

He is also Director of the University's Institute of Advanced Studies (IAS) and responsible for its development as a centre for intellectual interchange.

He is the author or editor of several textbooks on sociological methods of research and statistics and was the founding editor of the *Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation*.

Further details about Nigel Gilbert may be found in Wikipedia.

### Keynote 3

Title: **Alan Turing and the Other Theory of Computation**

Abstract:

Most logicians and theoretical computer scientists are familiar with Alan Turing's 1936 seminal paper setting the stage for the foundational (discrete) theory of computation. Most however remain unaware of Turing's 1948 seminal paper which introduces the notion of condition, setting the stage for a natural theory of complexity for the "other theory of computation."

Computational mathematics, the "other theory of computation," emanates from the classical tradition of numerical analysis, equation solving and the continuous mathematics of calculus.

This talk will recognize Alan Turing's work in the foundations of numerical computation (in particular, his 1948 paper "Rounding-Off Errors in Matrix Processes"), its influence in complexity theory today, and how it provides a unifying concept for the two major traditions of the Theory of Computation.

It is based on a plenary talk given on the eve of Turing's 100th birthday in June 2012 at the Turing Centenary Conference at the University of Cambridge, UK.

### Speaker: Professor Lenore Blum

Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

Inaugural Fellow, American Mathematical Society (AMS)

Distinguished Career Professor of Computer Science

Founding Director, Project Olympus

Founding co-Director, Swartz Center for Entrepreneurship

Carnegie Mellon University, USA

Lenore Blum (PhD, MIT) is Distinguished Career Professor of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University and Founding Director of Project Olympus, an innovation center that works with faculty and students to bridge the gap between cutting-edge university research/innovation and economy-promoting commercialization for the benefit of our communities. Project Olympus is a good example of Blum's determination to make a real difference in the academic community and the world beyond.

Lenore is internationally recognized for her work in increasing the participation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields. She was a founder of the Association for Women in Mathematics and served as its third president. She was founding co-Director of the Math/Science Network and its Expanding Your Horizons conferences for middle and high school girls. At Carnegie Mellon, Lenore founded the Women@SCS program and CS4HS, the latter program now sponsored world-wide by Google. In 2004 she received the US Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Mentoring. In 2009 she received the Carnegie Science Catalyst Award recognizing her work targeting high-tech talent to promote economic growth in the Pittsburgh region and for increasing the participation of women in computer science. In 2016 women comprised over 48% of new majors in computer science at Carnegie Mellon.

Lenore's research, from her early work in model theory and differential fields (logic and algebra) to her more recent work in developing a theory of computation and complexity over the real numbers (mathematics and computer science), has focused on merging seemingly unrelated areas. The latter work, founding a theory of computation and complexity over continuous domains, forms a theoretical basis for scientific computation. On the eve of Alan Turing's 100th birthday in June 2012, she was plenary speaker at the Turing Centenary Celebration at the University of Cambridge, England, showing how a little known (to logicians!) paper of Turing's is fundamental to this theory.